In the mid-90’s I had a chance to meet President Aristide. I was an “added” member of a small delegation of Catholic priests who met with him one afternoon. Mildred, President Aristide’s wife, served us cold, sweet citron in their home in Tabarre in Port-au-Prince.
During the meeting, multiple subjects were discussed including human rights. President Aristide’s comprehension of our questions and comments in English was excellent but I thought his spoken English was difficult to understand. However, he was patient with us and I am sure he had heard similar variations of our questions and comments many times in the past.
I remember that my comment to President Aristide was that I thought genocide was occurring in Haiti. My work is in “downstream” Haiti and I see the worst nightmares wash down the Haitian river all the time.
Quite honestly, I do not remember President Aristide’s answer to my genocide comment.
Since that time I have read about the derivation of the word genocide and about the man who took much of a lifetime to “create” the word. However, I could not give an exact definition of the word right now. And I didn't even look up genocide on Wikipedia before I posted this. So please forgive me for not doing my homework.
However, my definition of genocide is “to kill a people”. That seems exactly what is happening here....at least to poor people. The official definition of the word probably says much more.
It seems that we are witnessing the slow destruction and death of the Haitian poor. That is what I see every day and one “writes from where one stands”.
A couple of days ago in the pediatric clinic in Soleil, the genocide of the Haitian poor was described to me. The mothers’ stories of their sick children and their anguished lives were told to me over and over. And the scary part was each mother told me their tragedies in a fairly dispassionate way possibly because they are so habituated to all of this.
For example, a mother brought in her two-year-old boy named Slovensky. The toddler weighs 17 pounds and he had diarrhea and was coughing up long white worms (twelve to be exact). He had recently been discharged from St. Catherine’s Hospital right next door and was “still sick”.
Slovensky has severe underlying malnutrition. His heart rate was normal and he gazed at me with knowing eyes. He just appeared to be an “acute on chronic”. But he was definitely very sick.
After Slovensky’s mother told me his story, she objectively reported to me that Slovensky’s eleven-year-old sister died from cholera on the same day she became ill. Mother watched her die at Saint Catherine’s Hospital last week. When she told me, her voice didn’t crack but she may have had a slight facial contortion when she related the story. I was waiting for her to break down, but of course she never did.
When her little girl died, mother was at her bedside at St. Catherine’s and the girl’s body was taken immediately and buried in a mass grave outside of Port-au-Prince. Mother said they did this because they didn’t want her little girl’s body to “contaminiate” anyone.
I told mother that Slovensky needed to be readmitted to Saint Catherine's for fluids and she said, “I have no one”. She meant that she had no one to take care of Slovensky’s remaining sibling at home if she was tending to him in the hospital. Mothers are expected to bathe and feed and change the sheets and buy IV tubing, oxygen, chest xrays, and medicine for their children. This meant that she was going to refuse admission of pathetic Slovensky.
When I asked where the children’s father was, she said that he was killed on January 12 in the earthquake. He was downtown in Port-au-Prince pulling a cart (bouret).
And she told me all of this in a very matter-of-fact way.
So I enlisted the help of one of my Haitian pediatric colleagues to convince the mother that Slovensky should be admitted. Not surprisingly, the pediatrician listened to the facts, eyed the patient, and then sided with the mother and agreed Slovensky should go home.
I was very frustrated and tried to fight back in defense of Slovensky. But mother wanted nothing to do with my arguments and neither did anyone else. And Slovensky just laid in his mother’s arms silently watching the situation. It appeared that HE didn't even care what happened.
So with medication that I ordered from our pharmacy, I sent pathetic Slovensky back into the upper part of Soleil with his satisfied mom who could now be at home with both of her children. Home for them is a falling down shack and tent.
There were more histories somewhat similar to this the other day. In fact, every day has similar stories told by stoic and fatalistic poor people.
The infant mortality rate and the maternal mortality rates are very high in Haiti. And people are dying everywhere in the slum from preventable and treatable diseases...cholera being the most recent killer.
During genocide how many people need to die? Do they all need to die at once and from the same cause? And do people witnessing genocide like family and friends have to get use to it and report the loss of loved ones in an objective fashion? And do other people with means, like me, need to go through stages of "acceptance" of death and destruction before it can be called genocide?
I will look it up on Wikipedia.
Paul G magloire said...
A case of Genocide that will not remain unpunished
One speaks of GENOCIDE in the case where certain actions were undertaken and these actions have caused harm to a large number of people or a segment of a population or an ethnic group. These actions can be considered an act of GENOCIDE if they were perpetrated for political, social, economic, or religious reasons. The act of GENOCIDE constitutes a great violation of the human rights of people and a denial of their humanity.
One of the most well-known acts of GENOCIDE was the one perpetrated by the Nazis, under the order of Adolph Hitler, against the Jewish people of Europe. Indeed, the Jews were eliminated massively and systematically in concentration camps and gas chambers within the framework of the Final Solution aiming at exterminating these people. The Nazis leaders primarily responsible for this crime against humanity were trialed and condemned by an international court in Nuremberg, Germany, after the Second World War. More recently, the international court of Hague, in Holland, considered and condemned also several personalities known for crime against humanity. Such is the case for the Serb leader, Slobodan Milosevic and for the trial of the Liberian leader, Charles Taylor.
The acts being pursued by Mr. Préval and the Haitian government have all of the characteristics of GENOCIDE for several reasons. As a specialist in the field explain to us:
“One does not need platoons armed with machine-guns to kill 100,000 people in order to qualify it as an act of GENOCIDE… the mere fact that a government has chosen to deliberately do nothing to save endangered lives within a population, when it had all of the means or could obtain the support to do so, falls squarely within the framework of an act of GENOCIDE…”
In fact, the actions of Mr. Préval and his government resulted in the death of tens of thousands of people and could continue to cause still more victims. Because, one should consider the possibility where a hurricane would head for Haiti, and end up striking the areas where the hundreds of thousands of the displaced victims from the earthquake of last January 12, those who currently live in precarious shelters. In fact, if that were to happen, it would perpetuate the act of GENOCIDE. This is because Mr. Préval chose to leave these people under the tents, in order to have them near Port-au-Prince, the capital, for lucrative and political reasons. This decision will greatly hurt not just one or two people, but the several tens of thousands of people as well as the entire Haitian nation. Therefore, he must be judged for this act of GENOCIDE.
John A. Carroll, MD